@AbedChoudhury4 This Briefing from 2013 sums up many of the reasons for non-reporting and the impact this has on policy, especially policing and prosecutions, and the vicious cycle that is created. Assessing Hate Crimes and Backlash for Policy Change They include: 1/

@AbedChoudhury4 (i) disillusion with law enforcement agencies as uninterested; (ii) fear of double discrimination. As outlined by IHRC in previous work this is a fear that having reported an incident to the police or a manager, the victim is victimised once more by that agency. 2/

@AbedChoudhury4 The briefing also explains how the Domination Hate Model Theory was developed, as a way to obviate failings in data collection (whether via government, law enforcement or civil society), and how those statistics have shown that reported cases are just the tip of the iceberg. 3/3

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