@aarthaH @Phailgiyo @Kacchabaniyaan_ Here are some excerpts on the process of conversion in Kerala during the medieval era when it was completely under H rule & jati system source: Monsoon Islam: Trade and Faith on the Medieval Malabar Coast By Sebastian R. Prange

@aarthaH @Phailgiyo @Kacchabaniyaan_ The most comprehensive evidence for South Indian Hindus embracing Islam in the medieval period related to a sub-caste group (jati) known as Mukkuvas

@aarthaH @Phailgiyo @Kacchabaniyaan_ Zayn al-Dīn describes these as “ignorant and stupid religious obligations [taklīfāt]” and explicitly identifies the caste system as driving conversion to Islam... Gaspar Corrêa explicitly links these difficulties to their conversion

@aarthaH @Phailgiyo @Kacchabaniyaan_ In what is a rare case of concord between the two, the most famous historian of Malabar’s Muslims and the most famous historian of the Portuguese empire in India are both in agreement that caste restriction drove Mukkuva sailors to accept Islam.

@aarthaH @Phailgiyo @Kacchabaniyaan_ A newly revised edition based on the English translation of S.M.H. Nainar adds two additional sentences that describe how these restrictions attracted Hindus to Islam; these are not part of the original manuscript

@aarthaH @Phailgiyo @Kacchabaniyaan_ Corrêa makes it explicit that this proselytization occurred with the knowledge and consent of the king, a point that Zayn al-Dīn also makes.

@aarthaH @Phailgiyo @Kacchabaniyaan_ According to Pyrard de Laval, in Calicut this spirit of religious tolerance was even codified in law:

@aarthaH @Phailgiyo @Kacchabaniyaan_ It has even been claimed that Calicut’s rulers not only tolerated conversion to Islam, but actively enjoined it. The estimable orientalist William Logan states that in order to man their navy, the Zamorins enjoined Mukkuva families to bring up at least one son as a Muslim

@aarthaH @Phailgiyo @Kacchabaniyaan_ The twelfth-century Jewish trader Abraham Ben Yijū owned at least two slaves of local origin at Mangalore, and both Ibn Battutah and Ludovico de Varthema testify to the use of domestic slaves by Muslim merchants on the Malabar Coast

@aarthaH @Phailgiyo @Kacchabaniyaan_ Barbosa reports that under the Zamorin’s writ, vagrant youth at Calicut could be sold as slaves to Muslim merchants:

@aarthaH @Phailgiyo @Kacchabaniyaan_ Their motivation for doing so was transparent even to a casual visitor: as Pyrard de Laval noted, the Zamorins held these policies as the cardinal maxims of their government (“principale maxime d’État”) in order to make their kingdom rich and powerful

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